Selasa, 22 Oktober 2013

Diabetes, Its Investigations and Complications

There are many people in the world who ignore the small signs their body gives them to indicate diseases. Frequent urination, increased hunger and increased thirst are some signs that need immediate consultation from a doctor otherwise they might lead to coma and potential death. These signs are due to the presence of excess blood sugar levels which indicate Diabetes Mellitus, simply acknowledged as Diabetes.
Diabetes is of two types, type I and type II Diabetes. These were previously referred to as insulin dependent and insulin independent types but, since recent researches prove that insulin can be used in both types, this classification has been discarded. Type I diabetes is due to the body's inability to synthesize insulin requiring insulin injections. It occurs below the age of 20 and accounts for 10% cases of diabetes. In Type 2 diabetes the cells either stop responding to insulin or the insulin production is insufficient as compared to the glucose intake. The major cause of this form of diabetes is sedentary lifestyle along with obesity. It occurs after 30 years of life and accounts for 90% cases of diabetes. This form of diabetes can be controlled by dietary and lifestyle changes along with the use of oral hypoglycemic medicines. Insulin injections in this type have little or no effect but can be used in some cases. Other forms of diabetes include gestational diabetes in which, during pregnancy, the sugar level of the mother escalates beyond normal. This might result in intrauterine death of the baby and type II diabetes in the mother, later in life.
Due to the numerous damaging effects of diabetes, routine check ups for blood glucose levels are advised to all. These check ups include tests like fasting blood sugar or random blood sugar, which provide the first sign of high glucose levels in the blood. If the fasting or random blood sugar is raised then the confirmatory test for diabetes is done which is the oral glucose tolerance test. In this test standard carbohydrate load is given to the patient and then glucose levels are checked after 2 hours, if the glucose level is more than 200gm/dl even after 2hours then this confirms diabetes. These tests are also included in routine antenatal check ups for pregnant women to help in the immediately diagnosis of gestational diabetes, as early diagnosis will help to save the life of the baby as well as the mother
Heart attack is the most common cause of death in uncontrolled diabetes, the reason behind it is the fact that diabetes causes damage to arteries. This damage to blood vessels not only leads to stroke and paralysis but also causes blockage in peripheral vessels of the body leading to the formation of gangrene. Gangrene is formed as a result of blockage of vessels which lead to cell death and pus formation. Gangrene in feet is most common in uncontrolled diabetes and requires amputation to prevent spread of gangrene to the whole leg. Uncontrolled diabetes also affects the eye leading to, reduced vision, blindness or cataract formation. Moreover, due to changes in the kidney and progressive loss of proteins in the urine, diabetes also results in kidney failure.
Article writer who works on Odesk

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